Music Theory

Welcome

Find scales, chords, modes, intervals and other music theory topics quickly and easily, right here.

Use the navigation above or the links below to get around the site.

Please start with the Topic Overview links below if it's your first visit.

Topic overviews

The links below give a very brief overview of each topic, including an example in one musical key.

Note name, Chromatic scale, Major scale, Natural minor scale, Harmonic minor scale, Melodic minor scale, Relative minor, Circle of fifths, Key signature, Blues scale, Pentatonic scale, Note interval, Mode, Triad chord, Sixth chord, Seventh chord, Scale chord, Mode chord.

However, most of the site content can be found below.

Topics by key

This site works differently to most music theory sites.

The theory on how to constuct scales, modes, chords etc is organised by musical key, so rather than explaining the topic in principle, this site gives you the music theory for that topic in the key you are interested in.

If in doubt which key to start from, please use the topic overview links above which will suggest the easiest and most complex keys for each topic.

All scales on one page
MajorNatural minorHarmonic minorMelodic minor
Graphics - ChartsGraphics - ChartsGraphics - ChartsGraphics - Charts
Major scale
KeyCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Blues scale
Note nameCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
(Natural) minor scale
KeyCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Harmonic minor scale
KeyCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Melodic minor scale
KeyCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Key signatures on the treble clef and bass clef
MajorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Natural minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Harmonic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Melodic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Triad chords with 3 notes, including 1st and 2nd inversions
MajorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
MinorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
AugmentedCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
DiminishedCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Suspended 2ndCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Suspended 4thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
6th chords with 4 notes, including 1st, 2nd and 3rd inversions
Minor 6thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Major 6thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
7th chords with 4 notes, including 1st, 2nd and 3rd inversions
Diminished 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Half-diminished 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Minor 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Minor-major 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Dominant 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Major 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Augmented 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Augmented-major 7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Major 7th suspended 2ndCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Major 7th suspended 4thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Dominant 7th suspended 4thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Scale triad chords
MajorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
(Natural) minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Harmonic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Melodic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Scale 7th chords
MajorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
(Natural) minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Harmonic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Melodic minorCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Piano key note positions
Note nameCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Chromatic scale
KeyCC#DbDD#EbEFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbB
Circle of fifths
Lesson1. Introduction2. Major sharps3. Minor sharps4. Major flats5. Minor flats
Relative minor keys
Major scaleCGDAEBF#C#FBbEbAbDbGbCb
Pentatonic scales
Major pentatonicCGDAEBF#C#FBbEbAbDbGbCb
Minor pentatonicAEBF#C#G#D#A#DGCFBbEbAb
Mode definitions. Highlighted keys > natural key for each mode
Ionian>CC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
DorianCC#Db>DD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
PhrygianCC#DbDD#Eb>EE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
LydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#Fb>FF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
MixolydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#Gb>GG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
AeolianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#Ab>AA#BbBB#Cb
LocrianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#Bb>BB#Cb
Mode triad chords. Highlighted keys > natural key for each mode
Ionian>CC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
DorianCC#Db>DD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
PhrygianCC#DbDD#Eb>EE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
LydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#Fb>FF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
MixolydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#Gb>GG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
AeolianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#Ab>AA#BbBB#Cb
LocrianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#Bb>BB#Cb
Mode 7th chords
Ionian>CC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
DorianCC#Db>DD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
PhrygianCC#DbDD#Eb>EE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
LydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#Fb>FF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
MixolydianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#Gb>GG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
AeolianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#Ab>AA#BbBB#Cb
LocrianCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#Bb>BB#Cb
Note intervals, including inverted intervals
1stCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
2ndCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
3rdCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
4thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
5thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
6thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
7thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
8thCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Cadences
Perfect authenticCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
Imperfect authenticCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
PlagalCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
HalfCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb
DeceptiveCC#DbDD#EbEE#FbFF#GbGG#AbAA#BbBB#Cb