# D-flat 3rd intervals

The Solution below shows the 3rd note intervals above note Db, and their inversions on the piano, treble clef and bass clef.

The Lesson steps then explain how to calculate each note interval name, number, spelling and quality. The final lesson step explains how to invert each interval.

For a quick summary of this topic, and to see the important interval table used to calculate the number of semitones in each interval, have a look at Note interval.

 Key Interval no C C# [Db] D D# Eb E E# Fb F F# Gb G G# Ab A A# Bb B B# Cb 1st 2nd [3rd] 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th

## Solution

### 1. D-flat dim3-min3-maj3-aug3 intervals

This step shows the D-flat third intervals on the piano, treble clef and bass clef.

#### 3rd intervals above note D-flat

D-flat dim3-min3-maj3-aug3 intervals
ShortMediumSpelling
/ formula
Intervals 'above' statement#Semitones
d3dim3bb3The Db to Fbb interval is diminished 3rd2
m3min3b3The Db to Fb interval is minor 3rd3
M3maj33The Db to F interval is major 3rd4
A3aug3#3The Db to F# interval is augmented 3rd5

Middle C (midi note 60) is shown with an orange line under the 2nd note on the piano diagram.

These intervals are shown below on the treble clef followed by the bass clef.

#### Inverted intervals identifying note D-flat

This table inverts the above intervals, so that each link in the last column leads to note D-flat.

D-flat 3rd inverted intervals
ShortMediumLongNote nameLink to inverted
interval
d3Dbdim3D-flat diminished 3rdFbb<-(!?)->  Eb-aug-6th
m3Dbmin3D-flat minor 3rdFbFb-maj-6th
M3Dbmaj3D-flat major 3rdFF-min-6th
A3Dbaug3D-flat augmented 3rdF#F#-dim-6th

#### 3rd intervals below note D-flat

Intervals below
ShortMediumIntervals 'below' statement
d3dim3The diminished 3rd interval below Fbb is Db
m3min3The minor 3rd interval below Fb is Db
M3maj3The major 3rd interval below F is Db
A3aug3The augmented 3rd interval below F# is Db
 Bass Clef: Midi MP3 Treble Clef: Midi MP3

## Lesson steps

### 1. Piano key note names

This step shows the white and black note names on a piano keyboard so that the note names are familiar for later steps, and to show that the note names start repeating themselves after 12 notes.

The white keys are named using the alphabetic letters A, B, C, D, E, F, and G, which is a pattern that repeats up the piano keyboard.

Every white or black key could have a flat(b) or sharp(#) accidental name, depending on how that note is used. In a later step, if sharp or flat notes are used, the exact accidental names will be chosen.

The audio files below play every note shown on the piano above, so middle C (marked with an orange line at the bottom) is the 2nd note heard.

 Bass Clef: Midi MP3 Treble Clef: Midi MP3

### 2. D-flat major note interval positions

This step constructs the D-flat major scale, which is necessary because all interval names in this key are calculated using this major scale as starting point.

The major scale uses the  W-W-H-W-W-W-H  note counting rule to identify the scale note positions.

To count up a Whole tone, count up by two physical piano keys, either white or black.

To count up a Half-tone (semitone), count up from the last note up by one physical piano key, either white or black.

The tonic note - Db ,shown with an asterisk (*), is the starting point and is always the 1st note in the major scale.

The tonic is also the note from which intervals will be calculated in later steps - ie. all calculated intervals will have higher note pitches than the tonic.

Again, the final 8th note is the octave note, having the same name as the tonic note.
 No. Note 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Db D# / Eb F F# / Gb G# / Ab A# / Bb C Db
 Bass Clef: Midi MP3 Treble Clef: Midi MP3

### 3. D-flat major interval qualities

This step identifies the interval quality and formula / spelling for each note in the major scale, then identifies the third note of the major scale, and decides whether the interval quality is either perfect or major.

The table and piano diagram below show the 8 notes (7 scale major notes + octave note) in the Db major scale together with the interval quality for each.

#### Perfect or major?

The interval quality for each note in this major scale is always perfect or major. So the 1st, 4th, 5th and 8th are always perfect, and the rest are always major. This rule is fixed all major scales in all keys, so you will never see a perfect 3rd or a major 4th interval.

The difference between the perfect and major intervals is that perfect interval notes sound more perfect / pleasing to the ear than major intervals - ie. are more consonant / less disonant, when played together (harmonic interval) with, or alongside(melodic interval) the tonic note.

 No. Note #Semitones Quality Spelling/ formula 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb C Db 0 2 4 5 7 9 11 12 perfect major major perfect perfect major major perfect 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

#### Interval spelling / formula

In music theory, note intervals can also be expressed using using a spelling or formula, which mean the same thing. You may have seen a chord expressed as 1 b3 5, for example.

The spelling of the interval qualities in the above table will always be shown without any sharp(#) or flat(b) symbols, since these extra symbols represent the difference of the note from the major scale. And since the above table shows the intervals of the major scale, no sharp / flat adjustments are needed.

Using just the notes we have in the major scale above, a chord spelling of 1 3 5 uses the 1st, 3rd and 5th notes as they are, ie. the Db major chord. Or a 1 3 5 7 chord adds the extra 7th note, ie. the uses the 1st, 3rd and 5th notes as they are, ie. the Db maj 7 chord.

This rest of this page will focus on the relationship between the tonic note - Db, and the intervals surrounding the 3rd major scale note - F, whose interval quality is major. So we will definitely see extra sharp or flat spelling symbols there.

### 4. D-flat 3rd interval pitches

This step identifies the note positions of the D-flat 3rd intervals on a piano keyboard.

Having established that the major 3rd interval of the Db major scale is note F, this step will explore the other 3rd intervals next this note.

A major interval always has 3 other intervals grouped around it - one higher and two lower:

> One half-tone / semitone up from the major interval is the augmented interval.

> One half-tone / semitone down from the major interval is the minor interval.

> One half-tone / semitone down from the minor interval is the diminished interval.

The interval number (3rd) is added to the end, resulting in interval names going from the lowest note pitch to the highest:

3rd interval quality Names
ShortMediumLongSpelling
/ formula
#Semitones
d3dim3diminished 3rdbb32
m3min3minor 3rdb33
M3maj3major 3rd34
A3aug3augmented 3rd#35

#### Interval spelling / formula

Each interval has a spelling that represents its position relative to the major interval.

Flat signs (b) are used for intervals lower, and sharp (#) for intervals higher.

#### Interval short and medium names

Each interval name also has short and medium abbreviations, which are just different names for the same interval that you might see.

The short names are used in the piano diagram below to show the exact interval positions, with the orange number 0 representing the major interval, and the other orange numbers showing the number of half-tones / semitones up or down relative to that major interval.

The exact note names, including sharps and flats, of each of these intervals will be covered in the next step.

 Bass Clef: Midi MP3 Treble Clef: Midi MP3

### 5. D-flat 3rd intervals

This step identifies the note names of the D-flat 3rd intervals on a piano keyboard.

To calculate the correct interval names, just like the previous step, the major 3rd note is used as the starting point for working out interval information around it.

The major 3rd note name is F, and so all intervals around it must start with the note name F, ie. be a variation of that name, with either sharps or flats used describe the interval difference in half-tones / semitones from any given interval note to the major 3rd.

Sharps or flats will be added or cancelled to force all interval names to start with F. Even if that involves using double and triple-sharps and flats.

D-flat 3rd intervals
ShortMediumLongSpelling
/ formula
Note name#Semitones
d3Dbdim3D-flat diminished 3rdbb3Fbb2
m3Dbmin3D-flat minor 3rdb3Fb3
M3Dbmaj3D-flat major 3rd3F4
A3Dbaug3D-flat augmented 3rd#3F#5

Middle C (midi note 60) is shown with an orange line under the 2nd note on the piano diagram.

These intervals are shown below on the treble clef followed by the bass clef.

But why is this done ? To get the missing piece of the puzzle, we need to return to the interval number - the 3rd.

Not only does this number describe the note number of the major interval in the major scale, but it also describes the number of either lines or spaces on the staff between the tonic note and all intervals sharing that number - 3rd, be they called diminished, minor, major, perfect or augmented.

On either the treble or bass clef above, count the number of lines and spaces - starting from 1 at the tonic note (the lowest note), and ending on a given interval, and the last line or space having the interval you want will be 3rd line or space.

So this naming system forces all related 3rd intervals to share the same treble / bass clef line or space, as ultimately they are all 3rds, but each interval having different interval quality names (major, minor, diminished etc).

However, this explanation does not hold for intervals that are measured starting from double sharps or flats, but is useful in other cases.

 Bass Clef: Midi MP3 Treble Clef: Midi MP3

### 6. D-flat 3rd inverted intervals

This step explains how to invert note intervals, then identifies the D-flat 3rd inverted note intervals shown in previous steps.

#### Note interval inversion

An inverted interval is just an interval that is turned upside down.

For example, in the steps above, one of the intervals we measured was a major 3rd above Db, which is note F.

In contrast, an inverted interval specifies the distance from F to Db - ie. note Db is above note F.

A set of fixed rules exist to help us calculate the new quality name and interval number:

#### Note interval quality inversion rules

> A major interval always inverts to a minor interval.

> A minor interval always inverts to a major interval.

> A perfect interval always inverts to a perfect interval - no change.

> A diminished interval always inverts to a augmented interval.

> An augmented interval always inverts to a diminished interval.

#### Note interval number inversion rules

Simply subtract the original interval number from 9, resulting in the inverted interval number.

#### D-flat 3rd interval inversions

Taking the above rules into account, below is the table shown in the previous step, but with an extra column at the end for the link to the inverted interval quality in each case.

D-flat 3rd inverted intervals
ShortMediumLongNote nameLink to inverted
interval
d3Dbdim3D-flat diminished 3rdFbb<-(!?)->  Eb-aug-6th
m3Dbmin3D-flat minor 3rdFbFb-maj-6th
M3Dbmaj3D-flat major 3rdFF-min-6th
A3Dbaug3D-flat augmented 3rdF#F#-dim-6th

One or more of the inverted intervals in the last column are marked <-(!?)->, meaning that the note from which the inverted interval would be measured is not common, and so an enharmonic (simpler) note is given.

The note pitches, interval number and quality do not change.